This book describes and illustrates the armies of the embattled Ottoman Turkish Empire involved in 19th-century wars during the Empire's long spiral of decline. During the so called 'long 19th century', between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the difficulties faced by the Ottoman Turkish Empire were a recurrent factor in international geopolitics. Against a background of Russian–Ottoman rivalry, France and Britain supported the Empire during the Crimean War (1854–56), but not in the Russo–Turkish War (1877–78).
Portraying the uniforms, arms and appearance of Ottoman troops during this period, this book traces the history of the Ottoman Empire throughout this period, when no fewer than ten wars of regional insurgency and foreign expansion against the Empire were fought in territories in south-eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.
Using rare photos and illustrations from Turkish, Balkan and other sources, author, Gabriele Esposito details the history of the multi-ethnic Ottoman armies periodic attempts to modernize which enabled them to win some victories at a tactical level. But the Empire – 'the sick man of Europe' – lacked a coherent strategy or sufficient resources, and failed attempts to crush regional uprisings and to defend borders, saw the steady loss of territories. Due to misgovernment and economic failure, unrest finally boiled over in 1908–09, reducing the sultan's court to a largely ceremonial role, and installing a military government by the 'Young Turks' led by the general Enver Pasha.
This book is a vivid description of the organization, operations, uniforms and equipment of one of the most active and varied armies of the 'long 19th century' and paints a detailed picture of the Ottoman Empire's struggle to maintain control of its territories.
Read an extract of Ottoman Armies 1820–1914
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION – The 18th-century army – The 'New Army', 1794–1807 – The Empire during the Napoleonic Wars CHRONOLOGY, 1815–1914 REFORMS UNDER MAHMUD II, 1826–39 – Disbandment of the Janissaries – Rebirth of the New Army – Reconstruction and reserves, 1829–36 THE TANZIMAT, 1840–53 – Military regions and army corps – Conscription THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1853–56 – Ottoman campaigns – Bashi-bazouks under European command – The Anglo–Turkish Contingent – Polish volunteers THE RUSSO–TURKISH WAR, 1877–78 – Summary – Military Service Law, 1869 – The Ottoman Army, 1877 – Second-line reserves and auxiliaries THE LATE OTTOMAN ARMY – Military Service Law, 1879 – Hamidye irregulars, 1890s – Further 1890s reforms THE 'YOUNG TURKS' REVOLUTION – The army in 1909–14 ARMIES OF VASSAL STATES – Egyptian army, 1815–82 – Tunisian army, 1830–81 – Serbian army, 1808–76 – Montenegrin army, 1830–76 – Moldavian army, 1830–59 – Wallachian army, 1830–59 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY PLATE COMMENTARIES INDEX
Aug 17 2023
8 colour artwork plates; black & white photographs and illustrations.