By the outbreak of the First Carthaginian War, Carthage controlled the whole coast of northern Africa. At first, the core of the Carthaginian armies was made up of armed citizens, backed by levies from tributary allies and foreign mercenaries. Later, the mercenaries would become the backbone of these armies. This book explores the heterogeneous mixture of races within the Carthaginian forces, and discusses their clothing, equipment and weaponry. It details their tactical deployment and covers the campaign experiences of the great general Hannibal, who inflicted a number of defeats on Rome, before his eventual defeat at the battle of Zama in 202 BC.