The Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest, both on the Coast and the inland Plateau, were the last to encounter white traders and settlers. When contact occured in the late 18th century the explorers and traders found two distinct cultures. The fairly recent adoption of the horse had opened the Plateau tribes to influences from the peoples of the Plains; but the tribes of the Coast presented a sharply different picture, involving rigid class hierarchies, an economy based on fishing and hunting marine animals, and frequent intertribal warfare which involved slave raiding and head hunting. This fascinating text describes the ways of life, in peace and war, of the coastal and inland peoples of this region.
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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION The Coast and the Plateau before white contact – the horse reaches the Plateau – cultural divergence Social organization and ceremonial – intertribal warfare and the impact of firearms – disease, and subjugation TRIBES OF THE NORTHWEST COAST Northern Coastal tribes: Eyak, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Haida, Bella Coola, Haisla, Heiltsuk, Bella Bella, Ooweekeno, Kwakiutl Central Coastal tribes: Nootka, North Coat Salish, Central Coast Salish, Makah Southern Coastal tribes: Southern Coast Salish, Kwalhioqua, Chinookans, Clatskanie, Tillamook, Alseans, Kalapuyans, Siuslawans, Coosans, Athapaskans TRIBES OF THE PLATEAU Tribes of the Salish country: Kootenai, Flathead, Pend d'Oreille, Shushwap, Lillooet, Thompson, Nicola, Okanagan, Lakes, Colville, Kalispel, Wenatchee, Chelan, Sanpoil Tribes of the Columbia River: Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene, Cayuse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Palouse, Warm Springs/Tenino, Yakima, Wasco Wishram Southern tribes: Molala, Klamath, Modoc CHRONOLOGY CLOTHING, HOUSING & CANOES Clothing: the Coast – the Plateau Housing: the Coast – the Plateau Canoes HUNTING, FISHING & TRADE The Plateau: hunting – fishing The Coast: hunting and fishing Trade: the Plateau – the Coast RELIGION & CEREMONIAL LIFE The Plateau – the Coast The Potlatch WARFARE The Coast The Plateau American Indian Wars Cayuse War, 1847 – Yakima War, 1855–56 – Nisqually War, 1855–56 – Coeur d'Alene War, 1858 – Modoc War, 1872–73 – Nez Perce War, 1877 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY THE PLATES INDEX